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Glossary

A  B-C  D-G  H-K  L-O  P-Q  R-S  T-Z 


A

Albumin - any protein that is soluble in water and moderately concentrated salt solutions and is coagulable by heat. Found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. In the human body serum albumin, is the major plasma protein (approximately 60 per cent of the total), which is responsible for much of the plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP) and serves as a transport protein carrying large organic anions, such as fatty acids, bilirubin and many drugs and also carrying certain hormones, such as cortisol and thyroxine, when their specific binding globulins are saturated. Albumin is synthesised in the liver. Low serum levels occur in protein malnutrition, active inflammation and serious hepatic and renal disease.

Alpha1-Antitrypsin Deficiency - (A1AD or Alpha-1) is a genetic disorder caused by defective production of alpha 1-antitrypsin, deficient activity in the blood and lungs, and deposition of excessive amounts of abnormal A1AT protein in liver cells. Severe A1A deficiency causes emphysema in adult life in nearly all people with the condition, various liver diseases in a minority of children and adults, and occasionally more unusual problems.

Anti-D immunoglobulin - also called Rh (D) immunoglobulin, is an injection of Anti-Rhesus antibodies given to women whose blood group is Rhesus negative, if there is a chance that she has been exposed to Rhesus positive blood, either during pregnancy or blood transfusion.

Anti-infectives - something capable of acting against infection, by inhibiting the spread of an infectious agent or by killing the infectious agent outright.

Antiserum - serum containing immunoglobulins against specified antigens.

Antivenom - (or antivenin, or antivenene) is a biological product used in the treatment of venomous bites or stings. It is created by injecting a small amount of the targeted venom into an animal such as a horse, sheep, or rabbit; the subject animal will suffer an immune response to the venom, producing antibodies against the venom's active molecule which can then be harvested from the animal's blood and used to treat envenoming in others.

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B-C

Bacteraemia - is the presence of bacteria in the blood.

Biopharmaceuticals - are medical drugs produced using biotechnology. They are proteins (including antibodies), nucleic acids (DNA, RNA or antisense oligonucleotides) used for therapeutic or in vivo diagnostic purposes, and are produced by means other than direct extraction from a native (non-engineered) biological source.

Chromatographic - a technique for separating molecules based on differential absorption and elution. Involves the flow of a fluid carrier over a non-mobile absorbing phase.

Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP) - is one of a number of neurological disorders in which deficits arise as a result of inflammation destroying the myelin sheath (which surrounds and protects nerves). It is very rare and causes gradual weakness and a loss in sensation mainly in the arms and legs.

Coagulation - the process of clot formation.

Code of Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) - is the Australian code of Good Manufacturing Practice and is mandated under the Therapeutic Goods Act. It is the book of rules against which the Australian regulating agency (therapeutic Goods Administration) will audit a company to determine compliance. Failure to comply may result in licence suspension.

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) - is a very rare and incurable degenerative neurological disorder (brain disease) that is ultimately fatal. Among the types of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, it is the most common.

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D-G

Guillian-Barré Syndrome (GBS) - is an acquired immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nervous system (i.e. not the brain or spinal cord).

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H-K

Haemodialysis - a procedure carried out on patients with kidney disease to remove certain elements from the blood by virtue of the difference in the rates of their diffusion through a semipermeable membrane. Haemodialysis machines are often referred to as artificial kidney machines.

Haemolytic - is the disruption of the integrity of red blood cells causing the release of haemoglobin.

Haemophilia - a haemorrhagic diathesis occurring in two main forms: 1. Haemophilia A (classic haemophilia, factor VIII deficiency), an X linked disorder due to deficiency of coagulation factor VIII. 2. Haemophilia B (factor IX deficiency, Christmas disease), also X linked, due to deficiency of coagulation factor IX.

Hepatitis C - is a blood-borne, infectious, viral disease that is caused by a virus called Hepatitis C virus (HCV). The infection can cause liver inflammation that is often asymptomatic, but ensuing chronic hepatitis can result later in cirrhosis (fibrotic scarring of the liver) and liver cancer.

Hereditary angioedema (HAE) - is a rare but serious genetic disorder caused by low levels or improper function of a protein called C1 inhibitor. It causes swelling, particularly of the face and airways, and abdominal cramping.

Human papilloma virus (HPV) - are a diverse group of DNA-based viruses that infect the skin and mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. More than 100 different HPV types have been characterized. Some HPV types cause benign skin warts, or papillomas, for which the virus family is named. Others can lead to the development of cervical dyskaryosis, which may in turn lead to cancer of the cervix. HPV infection is a necessary factor in the development of nearly all cases of cervical cancer.

Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine - the quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus vaccine is a sterile liquid suspension prepared from the highly purified virus-like particles (VLPs) of the recombinant major capsid (L1) protein of HPV Types 6, 11, 16, and 18. It is indicated for the prevention of cervical, vulvar, and vaginal cancer, precancerous or dysplastic lesions, genital warts, and infection caused by Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types 6, 11, 16, and 18.

Hyperimmune - an immunoglobulin product having high titres of a specific antibody in the preparation.

Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP) - is a decrease in platelet numbers due to the presence of anti-platelet antibodies (IgG).

Immunisation - the creation of immunity against a particular disease by stimulation of the body’s immune system with a specific antigen.

Immunodeficiency - is a deficiency in immune response or a disorder characterised by a deficient immune response. This results in the decreased ability of the body to fight infection and disease.

Immunoglobulin (IgG) - also known as antibodies, are proteins produced by plasma cells. They are designed to control the body's immune response by binding to substances in the body that are recognized as foreign antigens (often proteins on the surface of bacteria or viruses). There are 5 major classes: IgA, IgG, IgD, IgM and IgE.

Influenza - commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of bird and mammals caused by a RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). In humans, common symptoms of influenza infection are fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, coughing, and weakness and fatigue. In more serious cases, influenza causes pneumonia, which can be fatal, particularly in young children and the elderly.

Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) - contains the pooled IgG immunoglobulins (antibodies extracted from the plasma of over a thousand blood donors) that is administered intravenously.

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L-O

Micro-organisms - (or microbe) is an organism that is microscopic (too small to be seen by the human eye). Microorganisms can be bacteria, fungi, archaea or protists, but not viruses and prions, which are generally classified as non-living.

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P-Q

Blood Plasma - the yellow-colored liquid component of blood, in which blood cells are suspended.

Pheresis - a procedure in which blood is removed from a donor, separated, and a portion retained, with the remainder returned to the donor. Examples are leukopheresis, plateletpheresis & plasmapheresis.

Polyvalent Snake Antivenom - CSL Polyvalent Snake Antivenom is prepared from the plasma of horses immunised with the venom of a number of species of Australian snakes. King brown snake (Pseudechis australis), Tiger snake (Notechis scutatus), Brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis), Death adder (Acanthophis antarcticus), Taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus). It is an injection designed to help neutralise the effect of the poison (venom) of most snakes that are encountered in Australia and in Papua New Guinea. Polyvalent antivenom would typically be used to treat a snake bite where it is not possible to identify the species of snake.

Primary Immunodeficiency (PID) - is an inherited condition where there is an impaired immune response. It may be in one or more aspects of the immune system.

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R-S

Recombinant - proteins prepared by recombinant technology. Procedures used to join together segments in a cell-free system (an environment outside a cell organism). Under appropriate conditions, a recombinant molecule can enter a cell and replicate there, either autonomously or after it has become integrated into a cellular chromosome.

Reconstituted High Density Lipoprotein (rHDL) - is prepared from apolipoprotein A-I, isolated from human plasma, and soybean-derived phosphatidylcholine and exhibits biochemical and functional characteristics similar to endogenous high-density lipoprotein (HDL). HDL forms a class of lipoproteins and it is hypothesised that HDL can remove cholesterol from within arteries and transport it back to the liver for excretion or re-utilisation, which is the main reason why HDL-bound cholesterol is sometimes called ‘good cholesterol’.

Subcutaneous - under the skin.

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T-Z

von Willebrand Disease (vWD) - a hereditary disorder caused by defective or deficient Von Willebrand factor, a protein involved in normal blood clotting, Both bleeding time and coagulation are increased. Factor VIII levels are secondarily reduced.

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